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Pencil

The core of a pencil is made of graphite, clay, and water. During the 17th century, the graphite and clay were grounded down by hand, put into a cylindrical mold, and fired in a kiln. Today, pencils are mass-produced by machines that cut down the wood, insert the lead, and stamp or print a design. We couldn’t complete a crossword puzzle, sketch a masterpiece, or write the next great Indian novel without a good pencil. While it may seem like these writing instruments simply grow on trees, they require expert…

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Paper

The history of paper started just after the start of the Gregorian calendar. Paper is derived from the Greek word pápyros, the name for the papyrus plant. This plant grows only on the shore lines of streams in the Middle East, like the river Nile (a river in Africa which flows into the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt). The “paper” from the papyrus plant was first used by the Babylonians and thereafter by the Egyptians (around 3000 B.C.). Also the Greeks and Romans used papyrus, amongst others for contractual obligations. The “paper” from…

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Pen

A pen is a common writing instrument used to apply ink to a surface, usually paper, for writing or drawing.[1] Historically, reed pens, quill pens, and dip pens were used, with a nib dipped in ink. Ruling pens allow precise adjustment of line width, and still find a few specialized uses, but technical pens such as the Rapidograph are more commonly used. Modern types include ballpoint, rollerball, fountain and felt or ceramic tip pens. The main modern types of pens can be categorized by the kind of writing tip or point on the pen: An inexpensive ballpoint pen A ballpoint pen dispenses an oil-based ink by rolling a small hard sphere, usually 0.5–1.2 mm and made of brass, steel, or tungsten carbide.[3] The ink…

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